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The Lord’s Day

in 1970s/1973/Look back in history/Main Stream by

IT IS A COMMON CUSTOM for us to memorialize those days that are important to us. Birthdays and wedding anniversaries illustrate this. Nationally, we celebrate Christmas to honor the supposed birth of Christ and Easter to honor His Resurrection. And, of course, there is an abundance of other national holidays: George Washington’s and Martin Luther King’s birthday anniversaries, Columbus Day, Armistice Day, Thanksgiving Day. Each of these days represents something deeply significant to the nation. However, none of them are rooted in Bible requirement. There is simply no command in either the Old Testament or the New that we set aside a day to commemorate any of the above listed events.

There are, however, three events that we are commanded to memorialize. So meaningful are these events that the God of heaven does not want us to forget them. He, therefore, prescribed the ritual by which they must be celebrated.

The first event is Christ’s Crucifixion. “Without shedding of blood is no remission” (Hebrews 9:22). It was at the cross that Christ opened the door that made possible salvation to all mankind. He bore our shame that we might share His glory. Someone had to pay for the sin of man. Rightfully, man should have died for his own transgressions. But the love of God was so deep and strong that Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, placed Himself at the bar of justice in man’s stead. This significant event we must never forget.

Our Lord directed, “This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.” This commandment was given after “he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it” (Luke 22:19). Later He took the cup and offered it for drink. This was the Communion Service. “Do this in remembrance of me,” Christ said. The Lord’s Supper is, therefore, a memorial of the death of Jesus Christ at Calvary for our sins.

The second event, baptism, memorializes His Resurrection. “Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life” (Romans 6:3, 4). Christ wants His Resurrection to be remembered. Thus by the significant act of immersion we commemorate His burial, and when we lift the candidate out of the water, we signify His Resurrection. Therefore, the Christian is to “walk in newness of life.”

The third act of God that requires a memorial is the Creation of the world. The God of heaven, in His wisdom, knew that the day would come when man would challenge this Biblical story. He, therefore, set in motion a weekly memorial of this creative act so that men would never forget their Creator. And, therefore, to counteract the evolutionary trends that would engulf the earth in the latter days, our Lord commanded,

“Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, . . . for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it” (Exodus 20: 8-11 ) .

Thus the Great Creator carved for Himself a temple in time, of twenty-four hours. It was the last day of the week—the seventh day. Every time it rolls around, the seventh day repeats the message, “God made heaven and earth.”

The Biblical description of this day is very interesting. It is called “the sabbath of the Lord” (Exodus 20:10) and “my holy day” (Isaiah 58:13). Christ designates Himself as “Lord also of the sabbath” (Mark 2:28). Therefore, when we read, “I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day” (Revelation 1:10), it can refer to no other day than the Sabbath Day, the seventh day of the week, commonly called Saturday.

This day alone enjoys the distinction of being labeled in the Scriptures “the Lord’s day.” Matthew 28:1 indicates that it is the day just before the first day of the week—Saturday, the last day, is the day before Sunday, the first day. Mark 15:42 tells us that the Sabbath follows the day of the preparation. Friday is preparation day.

After all these years since Creation, God has not let His holy day get lost. There are still seven days in the week. The seventh day is the last day of the week, and that day is named Saturday. God calls it His Sabbath and commands all men everywhere to remember it and keep it holy. The logic of this is almost inescapable. Is it not true that we rest after we have worked? That is one good reason for the Sabbath to come at the end of the week.

“Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God.” Some raise the rather logical question that since man named the days and man indeed invented the calendar, is it not possible that he got the days scrambled somehow in history? The Bible gives the answer: “I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever: nothing can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it: that men should fear before him. That which hath been is now; and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past” (Ecclesiastes 3:14, 15).

From this text the conclusion is evident. Man does not have the power to do away with anything God has created. But others raise the question Did not Jesus Himself, by coming forth from the tomb on Sunday, do away with the Sabbath, thus nailing it to the cross? The answer comes from the lips of Christ Himself: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 5:17-19).

In this passage Christ emphatically states that as long as the heavens are above and the earth is beneath, nothing will pass from the law. Thank God the heavens are still above us and the earth beneath us! It is clear then from the lips of Christ Himself that the seventh-day Sabbath is still His holy day, as He made it.

It was He who blessed and sanctified the Sabbath. It was He, Jesus Christ, who created the worlds. “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made” (John 1:1-3). Christ made the Sabbath by blessing it and sanctifying it (Genesis 2:2, 3). Ecclesiastes 3:14 says that “whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever.” But how did the custom of Sunday observance begin? Why is it that so few people keep the Biblical Lord’s Day and so many worship God on the first day of the week? The answer is rooted deeply in history. Early in the second century, Sunday was observed in honor of the Resurrection of the Lord. This annual observance was called Easter. It is still with us today. It was celebrated then once a year as it is now. About A.D. 200, a man named Victor proposed that penalties be assessed to anyone who refused to respect the annual festival of the Resurrection. The celebration of the Resurrection became so popular that it was changed from an annual observance to a weekly one. Emperor Constantine, in the fourth century, proclaimed to all civil servants that they were to cease from their work on Sunday and work on Saturday. He enlarged his 8 THE MESSAGE MAGAZINE—November-December, 1973 law in March, A.D. 321, to cover the whole Roman empire. Thus Sunday-keeping became civil law and was enforced by the power of the state. The religious law kept pace with civil law and in c. A.D. 336 the church adopted the law of the state at the Council of Laodicea. On January 18, 1562, at the Council of Trent, the church reaffirmed her decision after a speech by Caspar del Fusso, archbishop of Rheggio. Thus Sunday was propagated on a round world by the church and enforced by the state. Right here in America, in early New England, men were literally put in jails, flogged, and put in the stocks for working on Sunday. But the Bible still says, “The seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God.” Thus God’s Word has remained unchanged and His will for man unaltered. “My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips” (Psalm 89:34). “I am the Lord, I change not” (Malachi 3:6). This probably explains why all the disciples, the early founders of the Christian church, were strict observers of the Bible Sabbath. “And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath. . . . And the next sabbath day came almost the whole city together to hear the word of God” (Acts 13:42-44). “And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath, and persuaded the Jews and the Greeks” (Acts 18:4). In conclusion, it should be understood that in all of this we are simply following the example of our Lord. Sacred Scripture states clearly that “he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read” (Luke 4:16); “and came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on the sabbath days” (Luke 4:31). Christ attended the Temple on the Sabbath Day. A good question is, Where does the Sabbath of the Bible find you? May I state here that I am well aware that there are thousands of Christ-loving disciples worshiping on the wrong day. This message is an appeal to the conscience of the born-again Christian. To the sinner I would say, “Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost” (Acts 2:38). To sinful man the invitation from Christ is, “Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls” (Matthew 11:28, 29). Yes, to the sinner I would say, “But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us” (Romans 5:8). And I would appeal to you to accept Christ as your Saviour, embrace Him as your Lord, and acknowledge Him as your King. If you will allow the Holy Spirit to dwell in your hearts by faith, that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in you, then you will not walk after the flesh but after the Spirit. Once this happens, you are born again and you are, indeed, in the family of God. It is then that I would say to you in the language of Jesus, “If ye love me, keep my commandments” (John 14:15). And the Sabbath of the Lord, known as the Lord’s Day, is at the very heart of His law of love. Saved people live disciplined lives, and the Ten Commandment law is a verbal description of the new life-style. Will you not order your life now by the grace of God to be in harmony with the revealed will of God?


in 1978/Look back in history by


Students attacked by hoodlums in a troubled section of Boston demonstrate to the world how Christian discipline can triumph over insane and brutal aggression

by Carol Cantu


You’re too isolated,” our guest, Raymond Moore, director of Hewitt Research Center, had told us. “Let people know what you’re doing up here. . . . You need publicity.” He had just closed a summer workshop at Pine Forge Academy in August, 1977. I’m sure he was shocked, as were the rest of us, to find three months later the name of Pine Forge blazing in newspaper headlines and pictured on television news all across the nation.

Unfortunately, the incident that heralded news about Pine Forge was not exactly what Dr. Moore had in mind. Newspapers, radios, and television sets blared this story of violence at Bunker Hill: “Twelve students and two teachers beaten in racially troubled section of Boston.”

Though the facts of this incident are not unlike other racial encounters that have occurred in Boston over the past three years, the circumstances of the unprovoked attack and its implications to Pine Forge made up the greater story missed by the media but caught by us as being more important than the narrative itself.

A little more than a year ago Auldwin Humphrey, principal of Pine Forge Academy, told the student group that one day soon important people would focus their attention on Pine Forge. He had heard no announcement to that end and neither had any member of the faculty and staff, but he said merely that he was impressed this would happen.

The students laughed, for it didn’t seem to them like a plausible thing. From where they sat it was more in the realm of a Cinderella story—glittering and fanciful but out of touch with hard facts and reality. His prayer had been: “Lord send us a miracle.” This phrase rang in my mind for months. Our school needed a miracle to pull us out of the financial doldrums in which we found ourselves, especially after the September registration. Suffering from the results of a fire that completely destroyed our cafeteria, we also had a dramatic downturn in enrollment.

Even with the expertise of John Pitts, the new business manager, who had done a great job for the leprosarium in Sierra Leone, West Africa, Pine Forge would need divine intervention to see it through the financial thickets of an already troubled economy.

After two exasperating months our problem became more acute, and our plans for raising funds had to take on new momentum. Our student body rallied to the needs of the school and gave help in many ways, and these young people seemed unusually mature in their understanding of what was happening to us and to the school.

The spirit on campus was obviously serious and profoundly spiritual. Students as well as staff commented on what they felt was the indication of the Divine Presence among us.

As newly appointed director of public relations (a position certainly created out of need), I immediately busied myself making preliminary contacts with funding agencies. One response that I received on three occasions was that in order for a private institution, especially a high school, to receive money, it had to prove in a substantial way that it offered something unique in the field of secondary education. It must have a program that was not offered in public schools, a program that had proved its worth.

Of course I felt that Pine Forge did offer something unique: It presented “the harmonious development of the physical, the mental, and the spiritual powers.” But how could we measure this success for the benefit of others, and how could we convince, say, a foundation or its fact-finding agencies of the uniqueness of our program?

November 11 marked one year from the time our cafeteria burned. Since the Pottstown Mercury had carried the fire as headline news, we asked the editor to run the story of a solicitation day for which we had organized. We distributed flyers door to door in the city, advising the community of our efforts. On the day planned for solicitation, all preparations were made and everybody was geared to go, but it rained! With great disappointment we rescheduled our plans for the following

Monday, November 15. A group of students who had bookings for a field trip to Boston over the weekend urged us to wait for their return so they could participate. These students promised to include on their educational tour a Pine Forge recruitment program at a local church in Boston and to make a fund-raising contact at a travel agency.

Monday morning, November 15, 1977, began as an exciting day on campus. At the 7:55 worship we prayed fervently for our solicitation day and for the students who were to return that evening from Boston. We anticipated great and unusual developments for Pine Forge.

This was the backdrop against which we received news that four of our students, along with Charles Battles, their teacher, had been assaulted in Boston and were in the hospital being treated for multiple wounds, cuts, and lacerations. Battles had called Principal Humphrey to report the attack, but he was so composed as he related the matter that Humphrey could not imagine it was an incident of the magnitude newsmen later reported.

Battles had said they were to be examined and that he would telephone again on leaving the hospital. Before Battles could make his second call, our lines were jumping with calls from United Press International, Associated Press, and all major newspapers and television stations in the Philadelphia area. Although the media were calling us for information, they were our first real source of comprehensive facts about our students. We didn’t want to believe these reporters; hence we called the Boston police department and the hospital to verify their stories.

To our amazement, both the police department and the emergency personnel had more to say about the character of the students and teachers than about the incident. The police verified that the attack had occurred and gave a brief report on the apparent physical condition of each student. But they then elaborated on the maturity, independence, and spiritual strength of the students. They remarked that the attitude of the students toward their assailants was truly Christian and of a nature not witnessed by them before, especially in the kind of racial incidents that for months had kept Boston in perpetual turmoil. The police expressed hope that the media would capture this spiritual, nonviolent stance of our group.

When I called the hospital emergency room, I received a detailed report on the physical condition of each of our people admitted. Some were still undergoing tests at this point. When the emergency room director completed his report, he said to me, “These students and teachers are a credit to your school. They are demonstrating a training that we rarely see.” He mentioned their maturity and above all the projection of an unusual spiritual insight and moral accountability.

The praises that thus rang in my ear I interpreted as a measure, an evaluation, of the discipline of Christian education. Our philosophy, our aim, “the harmonious development of the physical, the mental, and the spiritual powers,” was tested, and it had scored highly. When the remaining students on campus heard of the incident, their immediate response was silence, then prayer. A depression seemed to grip the entire group at lunchtime; a few began to weep softly. It was a difficult decision to continue our plans. We had no idea at that moment that radio and television networks all over the country had announced the attack on Pine Forge students in Boston. When we approached homes in the Pottstown area, hearts had been touched and people gave generously to our cause. In about five hours, less than one hundred students had raised over twelve hundred dollars. Our advanced planning of the solicitation day had alerted the community to our coming, but the Boston incident had alerted them to the merit of our cause.

The next morning I accompanied Auldwin Humphrey to Boston. Our primary aim was to be with the students, to lend moral support, and to check firsthand on their well-being.

Principal Humphrey was deeply concerned about legal ramifications of the situation and was apprehensive that this might occupy precious time in drawn-out hearings, thus diverting him from important work at the academy. In my role as director of public relations I needed to know the complete story so that I could intelligently answer questions. What happened, as reported from students and teachers, was this:

On leaving the Bunker Hill monument in the Charleston section of Boston, they noticed a car circle a few times. At first there were just two men in the car, but later there were five.

With the approach of the public bus for which the group was waiting, the men sprang from the car and began beating our tour group with golf clubs and hockey sticks. The first reaction of the Pine Forge boys was to protect the young ladies. The five male students and teacher muscled all of their strength to gather the eight girls and push them into the bus to shield them from injury. Even so, only six girls safely boarded the bus without a single blow; two ran for shelter down the street.

After Pine Forge men had protected the young ladies, they struggled to get onto the bus themselves. Only after they were safely inside did someone come to their aid. That aid was given by the bus driver, who merely closed the door against the assailants. He then took the group to the police station. Two blocks down the street he picked up the girls who had run to escape the attackers. When the group was together again, blood trickling down their faces and splotching their clothes, their first words were, “Let’s have prayer.” There on the crowded bus, spectators totally silent and unresponsive, the group joined hands for an audible prayer.

They prayed for health, strength, and protection. They gave thanks that though they were blood spattered and in pain, they were all conscious and aware of God’s mercies. They gave thanks that even though no one save the bus driver really came to their aid, God had protected them from an altercation that could have been far worse.

In the police station they intelligently and without hysteria gave their story. The injured were taken to the hospital, and the others were questioned further. During this interlude the students spotted the car and one of the assailants lurking around the police station. The officers immediately arrested three of the men.

When the Pine Forge youth were presented with photographs of these men, they were able to easily identify them.

Boston police were especially impressed that these youngsters who had undergone a tremendous episode were calm, unrevengeful, and noticeably articulate about what had transpired. Those who could make positive identifications did so. Those who had the slightest doubts refused in any way to make a judgment that might incriminate the innocent.

When the tour group had finally gathered at the hospital, they were bombarded with questions from news reporters, who were shocked that amid all the blood and physical pain there was not even a hint of anger. This maturity, alertness, and spiritual composure seemed literally to captivate them.

Mayor Kevin White also met with our young people at the hospital and expressed his embarrassment and apology on behalf of the city. He, too, admired the students and their handling of the affair, for he was aware that such a delicate situation—if allowed to get out of hand—could have resulted in a major riot. Complete strangers came forward to offer their help—some to care for dry cleaning and laundry, others to provide hotel accommodations, dinners at big restaurants, elaborate city tours, and the like. The students were advised to stay on to witness at the legal hearings, which were expedited to accommodate them. One dignitary of Boston after another expressed either by telephone, letter, or in person their apologies for

Boston and their admiration to the group for the way they responded. At the end of the first grand jury session the district attorney, his assistants, and several jurors remarked on the excellent cooperation of the students. The kinds of clues that give credence to a testimony were evident in the remarks of each who testified. One juror was so impressed with the articulation of the students that she asked one to tell her more about Pine Forge Academy.

How was it different, what was its philosophy? Fred Walters answered without hesitation, “Our school is different because we believe that true education ‘is the harmonious development of the physical, the mental, and the spiritual powers.’ ”

Reporters, jurors, Boston officials, and even the mayor himself, asked for an invitation to visit Pine Forge Academy. Massachusetts secretary of education, Paul Parks, remarked that he had just submitted to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare a paper that proves public education in its design is not geared for the masses and especially not for those who are poor, black, or minority.

He seemed to be especially interested in a school like Pine Forge as a model of what effective education can be. The National Broadcasting Company has expressed an interest in a television special on Pine Forge and its philosophy of “true education.” As an immediate result of the Boston incident, Mayor White has consented to be a guest at a fund-raising dinner for our academy. Roy Dunfrey, owner of several exclusive hotels, has donated the ballroom of the Philadelphia Sheraton for the grand event. Singer Clifton Davis, a Pine Forge alumnus, has offered to provide entertainment along with The Brothers, a popular Adventist singing group from Washington, D.C. Donations have begun to come to the school from people in many parts of the nation.

We at Pine Forge know that the Boston incident was more than a racial attack. In a mysterious way God was letting the world get a glimpse of some results of true education. Financially, the door was opened for the academy to receive more of God’s blessings. Our enrollment will undoubtedly increase as the world evaluates and the parents and friends of our students reevaluate what Pine Forge has to offer.

God is working a miracle at Pine Forge so that we may do His will even more and exemplify even to a greater extent the meaning and substance of character education. We sometimes talk pessimistically about the future of our young people. But we at Pine Forge are more convinced than ever that God’s work is in good hands with youth who stood as these did at Bunker Hill.


James E. White and the Morning Star

in 1970/Living Faith by

Reaching Blacks in the Deep South

THIS IS the story of an intrepid pioneer, of a river­boat named Morning Star, and of the remarkable min­istry of James E. White and his associates among black people in the South. BY NORMAN G. SIMONS

A bout the turn of the century a man decided that God’s mission for him in life was to evangelize Negroes in Mississippi. A bearded dreamer, carpenter, printer, riverboat captain, organizer, author, artist, teacher, and preacher, he chose a steamboat as an evangelistic instru­ment and black Mississippi as his parish. Before his work ended, he had established scores of churches and schools, a publishing house, a missionary society, and a hospital as monuments to his dedicated enterprise. His name was James Edson White, “J.E.” to his friends.

Following the traumatic years of the Civil War and Reconstruction, blacks found themselves destitute, with­out educational opportunities, ostracized, and segregated. It was a bleak outlook. At this time James Edson White’s mother, Ellen G. White, issued a series of papers calling upon Christians to do something about the situation. In her efforts to stir her contemporaries she related the “church-colored” relationship to the Jewish churchman’s attitude toward the unfortunate on the Jericho road.

J.E. had engaged in early life in a number of enter­prises-some of them unsuccessful-until in 1893 he dis­covered a soiled copy of his mother’s manuscript dealing with the needs of the colored people in the Southern states. In a few days he had inflamed his soul with the conviction this was his God-given calling, and he began to dream how he might play his part. He thought of a steamboat.

The Morning Star was built for stress out of heavy white oak timbers and planking obtained in trade for a lot in the spring of 1893. It was painted white, with a large star just above the pilothouse. Rooms were designed for living quarters for workers, a print shop provided, and a chapel arranged by hanging an awning over a section of the deck.

When it was completed, Edson White, his wife, and several workers set forth under tow by the steamer Bon Ami to cross Lake Michigan. A gale developed; and heavy waves battered the Morning Star, at times making them despair of completing the crossing. The stormy Michigan voyage was a forecast of the turbulent years ahead as the determined Edson White and his little band sought to lead ex-slaves to Jesus Christ.

In The Gospel Herald, May, 1905, he summed up the trip south by saying, “After various experiences and vicis­situdes, the boat reached its destination at Vicksburg, Mississippi, on the tenth of January [1895].”

Vicksburg still bore the scars of war. The open trenches and fortifications were still raw. Cannonballs and the debris of war still littered the ground. The population was still sensitive to “outsiders” and foreign doctrines, but there God had sent J. E., and there he went.

The evangelistic formula was this: They would visit the churches and invite the members to attend religious services on the Morning Star. A church on a steamboat was different, and it attracted all classes. Well-attended meetings were conducted at every community where the boat could dock: Vicksburg, Bruce’s Landing, Calmar, Joe’s Walk, Palo Alto, and Yazoo City all heard the gospel.

As soon as baptisms occurred, a need for church buildings developed. Using funds derived from the sale of his books and money contributed by sympathetic Chris­tians in the North, the little band led by J. E. White and F. W. Halladay helped members build simple chapels.

One of the most potent instruments in J.E.’s arsenal was his gifted pen. He wrote The Gospel Primer, which sold for twenty-five cents. One half of this amount went to the book salesman. Thousands of the little volumes were sold and became in the early years Pastor White’s primary source of income. Later he authored The Coming King, which was a best seller of religious literature.

The printshop featured two steam presses, and with them he produced The Gospel Herald. Regularly The Gos­pel Herald told of the advances of the Mississippi steam­boat mission, advertised White’s books, and appealed for funds. The boat also served as the first headquarters of the Southern Missionary Society.

The Morning Star pioneered in many phases of social service. During the heavy floods that plagued the Missis­sippi Valley the big steamboat volunteered for rescue operations, bringing in refugees and animals from flooded lowlands and buildings.

J.E. was appalled by the tremendous human need. Most of the people in the delta lived in primitive shacks. One could see the ground through cracks in the floor or the stars through openings in the wall. Battered shutters served for windows. Hunger and poverty were a common lot. He appealed to churches and individuals in the North for food and clothing for the destitute, and the response came in the form of barrels of clothing, meal, flour, and molasses. These were distributed to the needy.

Mississippi was a part of the “Cotton Belt,” which was dedicated to one-crop farming. Through the pages of The Gospel Herald, J. E. White urged diversified farming and insisted on the development of large gardens to pro­vide for much of the family food needs.

He brought in seed-beans, potatoes, and corn. He provided in some communities for the first time straw­berry, cherry, and grape plants, and suggested keeping a hive or two of bees. Often revenues from his book were held up or not forthcoming, and J.E. and his family shared the poverty of the area. In later years he developed pellagra, a nutri­tional condition that produces dark scales on the hands. On one of his itineraries to the churches he wore gloves constantly, fearful lest his illness be contagious.

White saw the need for schools, and before he left the South, more than fifty had been established. In the early years he recruited many concerned white teachers. Later, as he encountered racial difficulties, he sought Negro teachers. Some of the latter group who began as teachers later became pastors and evangelists, as Frank Bryant, T. Murphy, M. C. Strachan, and F. Warnick.

In recent weeks, two persons who were converted un­der the ministry of the Morning Star met in Nashville: Mrs. Cynthia Gertrude Johnson Millet (the mother of the editor of THE MESSAGE MAGAZINE)’ now eighty-two years of age, and Mrs. Naomi Emily Warnick Simons, seventy eight, the mother of the writer of this article, the adminis­trator of Riverside Hospital. Both vividly recall the per­sonalities, sacrifices, and triumphs of those pioneer days.

Mrs. Naomi Warnick Simons, a daughter of one of the early teacher-pastors, Franklin Warnick, was baptized by the Morning Star ministers in the Cumberland River at the foot of Broadway Street in Nashville, in 1903.

As churches already established began to resent the evangelistic efforts of the Morning Star team, rumors were circulated to raise racial alarm in the white community. The Edson White group was accused of being Northern­ers and agitators who advocated social reform. Nor was his cause made more popular by his preaching the Seventh-­day Adventist doctrines. From that time the work was done under the cloud of duress and persecution.

Mrs. Cynthia Johnson Millet was one of two Negro schoolgirls who lived for a time in the Vicksburg home of Pastor and Mrs. Fred R. Rogers. Because of this, Pastor and Mrs. Rogers were labeled as opponents of segregation. They suffered indignities and threats for their kindnesses to their black parishioners.

Ultimately the Rogers family moved on, after provid­ing black ministers, such as Pastors Dancer and F. War­nick, to carry on the Morning Star ministry. They too worked under adverse circumstances, but they were faith­ful in their tasks in spite of a rising tide of resentment.

Pastors Dancer and Warnick built a chapel in Lintonia, a black suburb of Yazoo City. The church was built sec­tion by section on the Morning Star landing; then it was taken to the site and bolted together, without the sound of nail or hammer, a forerunner of the “prefab” building.

It was soon decided that, because of the opposition, White and his associates should leave the Vicksburg Yazoo City area and take the Morning Star to a city with a more favorable social climate. Nashville, Tennessee, was chosen; and in a few weeks the steamer was brought up the Cumberland River and anchored at Edgefield Junction. There in a fine farming community, Morning Star’s ministry was continued.

Not too long after the arrival in Tennessee, a leak developed; and in thirty-six hours the boat sank in ten feet of water. A diver from Cincinnati was obtained, and at a cost recalled as $300 or $400 the boat was raised.

One of its last major trips was on June 8, 1904, when the Morning Star steamed proudly up the Cumberland with a passenger group consisting of Ellen G. White, P. T. Magan, E. A. Sutherland, and James Edson White. On this trip they located the property for Madison College [now Madison Academy] and Madison Hospital. In 1905, the Morning Star, after an illustrious career in public ser­vice and evangelism, caught fire on a bend of the river near the Bordeaux bridge on Clarksville Highway and burned to the waterline. The boiler was salvaged and used in the Rock City Sanitarium.

James Edson White died in 1929. Some said he was an eccentric, a dreamer, hard to get along with, and a generator of too many projects; but he was also a chosen instrument of God to pioneer gospel ministry among a then despised and neglected minority. He was a forerunner of a religious movement which now involves more than 70,000 black American members in approximately 440 Seventh-day Adventist churches across the land. God signally blessed his ministry, and scores of churches and schools, The Southern Missionary Society, the Southern Publishing Association, and the Rock City Sanitarium, as well as thousands won to Christ, owe a tremendous debt to the courage, vision, and determination of this valiant man of God.

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